Electric Bike Glossary

Brushless Motor:

an advanced design electric motor which uses Hall-Effect sensors in place the old of brush and commutator system to detect the electromagnet positions inside of the motor and apply electricity to the proper electromagnets at the proper time. Brushless motor benefits include lighter weight and higher efficiency when compared to standard brushed type DC motors.


Cadence Speed Sensor:

a component which senses an electric bicycles pedal crank speed and sends and electronic signal to the bikes Speed Controller which controls the amount of power that the motor receives. Used on Pedal Assisted or PAS type of speed control systems on electric bicycles.


Chain:

an assembly of metal parts which transmits power from one rotating shaft to another. On most electric bicycles two chains are employed, one for the motor to rear wheel, and another for the cranks to the rear wheel. Roller chain is one of the most efficient power transmission systems known to mankind. It is more efficient than rubber drive belts.


Charger Plug:

An electrical power connector attached to a battery charger which connects and disconnects from a Charger Port.


Charger Port:

An electrical power connector attached to an electric scooter or electric bicycle which the Charger Plug connects and disconnects from.


Circuit Breaker:

an electronic component which interrupts the flow of electricity when it detects an Amperage level that is higher than the Amperage rating of the circuit breaker. On electric scooters and electric bicycles the circuit breaker is located in the Wiring Harness between the Battery Pack and the Speed Controller.


Cluster:

an assembly of different sized Sprockets arranged in ascending order which works in conjunction with a Derailleur and Shifter to create a manually operated variable speed Power Transmission System.


Cog:

a pulley with vertical grooves which mates with a vertically grooved cog Belt to form a Power Transmission System. The benefits of a cogged Drive Belt system are lower belt tension levels and the elimination of belt slip during operation. Cogs go by many other names such as: belt sprocket, pulley, belt pulley, cog pulley, timing pulley, gear, belt gear, timing gear, and cog gear.


Component:

a monolithic part or an assembly of parts which is designed to be replaced as a single unit.


Derailleur:

a bicycle Power Transmission System component which works in conjunction with a Shifter to change gears on a rear wheel Cluster.


Direct Current:

the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by batteries, solar cells, and dynamo type generators.


Disc brake:

Hydraulic brake in which friction is applied to both sides of a spinning disk by the brake pads


Drum brake:

Hydraulic brake in which friction is applied to the inside of a spinning drum by the brake shoe


Durometer:

an instrument used for measuring indentation hardness of rubber, plastics and other materials.


E-Bike:

An electric bicycle, also known as an e-bike, is a bicycle with an electric motor used to power the vehicle.


Freewheel Mechanism:

a component of the Power Transmission System which disengages the rear wheel hub from the rear wheel chain sprocket whenever the wheel spins faster than the sprocket does.


Fuse:

an electronic component which interrupts the flow of electricity when it detects an Amperage level that is higher than it’s own Amp rating. On electric bicycles the fuse is located in the Wiring Harness between the Battery Pack and the Speed Controller.


Hall-Effect:

a proximity reading sensor which employs a magnet and an environmentally sealed electronic sensor to detect the proximity of the magnet to the sensor. Hall-effect sensors are used inside of the throttles found on most electric bicycles.


HR:

HR stand for Hour Rating which is a universal storage battery rating system used to determine the method that the stated Amp hour rating of a battery was calculated. Common battery ratings are 20HR, 18HR, 15HR, 10HR, 5HR, and 2HR. The storage capacity difference between a 2HR and 20HR battery is around 15%, and the storage capacity difference between a 10Hr and 20HR battery is around 5%.


HTD Belt:

a flat vertically grooved fiber reinforced rubber Cog belt designed for power transmission between two Cogs.


Key Switch:

an electrical switch which requires a key for operation. Electric bicycle key switches are used to turn the vehicle’s power on and off. The key can only be removed in the off position to prevent it from becoming lost while driving.


Kick Stand:

A kickstand is a device on a bicycle that allows the bike to be kept upright without leaning against another object or the aid of a person.


Lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB):

Rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging.


Lithium-ion polymer batteries, polymer lithium ion, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (abbreviated Li-poly, Li-Pol, LiPo, LIP, PLI or LiP) :

Rechargeable (secondary cell) batteries


Pedal Assisted:

a type of speed control system used on electric bicycles which uses a Cadence Speed Sensor to regulate the amount of power that the motor receives. With this type of system the rider needs to pedal lightly in order to operate the motor. Power Assisted speed control is required by law for all electric bicycles used on public roads in many European countries.


Power Transmission System:

an assembly of externally mounted components or a single sealed component which is responsible for transmitting the power of the motor to the drive wheels. The most common type found on electric bicycles is the chain and sprocket transmission system. Other popular power transmission systems include the belt and cog transmission system, and finally the highest quality albeit rarer and more expensive sealed gear transmission system which utilizes machined steel gears inside of a sealed metal casing and has no exposed moving parts other than it’s driveshaft.


Reflector:

A piece of glass, metal, or other material for reflecting light in a required direction, e.g., a red one on the back of a bicycle


Sealed Lead-Acid Battery:

an electrical power storage device which uses lead-alloy plates in conjunction with fiberglass spacers filled with an acidic paste which resists leaking if the battery case is accidentally cracked or damaged.


Shifter:

a hand operated lever or twist grip which engages different gears on a rear wheel Cluster.


Speed Controller:

an electrical component of an electric bike which when used in conjunction with a throttle allows for precise control of the electric motors speed.


Sprocket:

a Power Transmission System component which transmits rotary power from a shaft to a chain, or visa versa.


Thumb Throttle:

a handlebar mounted thumb operated lever which controls the speed of an electric bike.


Twist-And-Go:

a speed control system used on electric bicycles which controls the speed of the vehicle with a twistable throttle. Twist-and-go throttles or twist throttles have built in springs which return the throttle back to the off position when it is released or let go of.


Twist Throttle:

a twistable handlebar grip which controls the speed of an electric bike.


Vent-hole

– a hole for the escape of gas or air


V/Rim- brake:

Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down or stop a bicycle.


Volt :

A unit of electromotive force. The electrical potential needed to produce one ampere of current with a resistance of one ohm.


Wiring Harness:

an assembly composed of wires and wire connectors designed specifically for one brand or model of electric bicycle.